An Introduction to Biomedical Ethics

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Applying Bioethics
To apply bioethical principles to a clinical situation, one first must recognize that a bioethical problem exists. To do this, one must read and discuss the issues and specific situations both to be able to recognize bioethical issues within clinical cases and to formulate plans to handle with them. Although physicians like to reduce all clinical situations to "medical problems," the ever-more complex medical environment often produces problems that are inexorably intertwined with fundamental bioethical dilemmas. Some are obvious, but many are more subtle and difficult to recognize.

Many professional organizations have addressed ethical issues by formulating a code of ethics. Table 1 lists a compilation of issues that have been addressed by various organizations. The key to recognizing bioethical issues and applying its principles
and virtuous behavior is to prepare for both their obvious and their subtler presentations. As is done with critical events faced in medicine, one must read, discuss, and think about how to face these issues when they present. This can lead not only
to personal preparation but also to more general policies that help guide everyone faced with difficult bioethical issues.

Table 1 Medical Organizationsí Ethical Codes

Protest patient confidentiality
Professional excellence through
Be a good citizen
Change laws to be in patientsí best interests
Obtains consultation when necessary
Choose whom to serve except in emergencies
Avoid discriminatory practices
Promote highest quality of health care
Prevent patient exploitation
Encourage public health thru education
Protect patient dignity
Expose incompetent/dishonest physician
Full disclosure to patients
Patientís free choice of physician
Do not abandon patients
Disclose moral/religious conflicts
Preserve human life
Perform duties objectively/accurately
Render aid in emergencies
Protect patient welfare
Respect the law
Respect patient autonomy
Participate in clinical research
Assure death with dignity
Transplant/donation conduct
Promote harmony with other health professionals
Responsibility to third parties/next-of-kin
No participation in torture/inhumane practices

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good, i liked this. Actually it is the need to have such an efficient ideology in today's world of modern science.


very Good. Continue to do the same for the people!


Who authored this please?


thanks for your wonderful work but we need to know more about virtue theory. it is very sketchy in your work.

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