Pleural Effusion

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  • Transudates are ultrafiltrates of plasma in the pleura caused by a small, defined group of etiologies. In contrast, exudates are produced by a variety of inflammatory conditions and often require more extensive evaluation and treatment.

  • Transudates include the following:

  •     1. Congestive heart failure

        2. Cirrhosis

        3. Atelectasis

        4. Nephrotic syndrome

        5. Peritoneal dialysis

        6. Myxedema

        7. Constrictive pericarditis

  • Exudates include the following:
  • Parapneumonic
  • Malignancy (carcinoma, lymphoma, mesothelioma)
  • Pulmonary embolism
  • Collagen-vascular (rheumatoid arthritis, lupus)
  • Tuberculous
  • Asbestos-related
  • Pancreatitis
  • Trauma
  • Postcardiac injury syndrome
  • Esophageal perforation
  • Radiation pleuritis
  • Drug-induced
  • Chylothorax
  • Meig syndrome
  • Sarcoidosis
  • Yellow nail syndrome
Other Problems to be Considered
  • Chronic pleural thickening
  • Malignant mesothelioma

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how much it costs ?


i get the shakes, because i be in so much pain from my menstrual cycle the frist two days of it coming on.


how much amount of pleural fluid is required for cytological examination to detect malignancy in a patient having huge amount of pleuritis

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