Management of Heart Failure

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Clinical Assessment For Diagnosis

HF diagnosis is based on the recognition of a constellation of symptoms and clinical signs. This is difficult because the clinical signs and symptoms may vary with the age of the patient.

Individual clinical signs and symptoms correlate poorly with LV dysfunction and have very low sensitivity or specificity. Misdiagnosis can be a common occurrence in primary care practice because many of the signs and symptoms are not specific to the
HF syndrome. To make a diagnosis of HF the physician seeks and integrates information about the cause for HF, the clinical signs and symptoms elicited by history and physical examination, chest film findings, electrocardiogram results, pertinent laboratory tests, and echocardiography. Other potential causes of nonspecific symptoms such as fatigue and dyspnea on exertion must be considered in the diagnostic process.

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what is the explanation for orthopnoea in CCF




Physical inactivity is a major risk factor for heart disease and stroke and is linked to cardiovascular mortality. Regular physical activity can help control blood lipid abnormalities, diabetes and obesity. Aerobic physical activity can also help reduce blood pressure. The results of pooled studies show that people who modify their behavior and start regular physical activity after heart attack have better rates of survival and better quality of life. Healthy people as well as many patients with cardiovascular disease can improve their fitness and exercise performance with training.


very informative article !!!

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