a) Rectal temperature : is measured by using a rectal thermometer which has rounded, atraumatic bulbous ends. It is inserted carefully, generally about 5 cm in infants and 7 cm in children. Equilibration takes 2-4 minutes with a mercury thermometer.
b) Axillary and oral temperature: are the usual methods in older children and adults but they are unreliable as they are subject to variation.
c) Device such as "temperature strips" measure skin temperature but may under estimate core temperature.
d) Electronic thermometers requiring 30 sec to equilibrate, are practical, for hospital, clinic and office use.
e) Auditory canal temperature: is measured as a fraction of infrared emissions.
f) Urinary temperature.
The most accurate measurements are made when the thermometer is left in the mouth for 3 minutes (the readings taken < 2 min are inaccurate).
In younger children and infants, it is preferable to measure axillary temperature for convenience.
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