1. Genetic and blood groups: Blood group O three times common than other groups.
2. Neurogenic: stress and anxiety through Vagus nerve.
3. Endocrine: There are specific endocrine disorders which may be associated with severe or intractable ulceration.
a) Zollinger - ellison syndrome.
b) Multiple adenoma syndrome.
4. Infection: Helicobacter Pylori.
5. Accessory causes: inadequate mastications, alcohol, irregular meals, smoking, vitamin deficiency.
Occurs in alkaline mucosa.
Invades muscle coats.
Fibrosis from recurrent ulcers causes deformities.
Nearly always situated in first part.
Anterior ulcer carries risk of perforation while posterior ulcer may cause hemorrhage due to erosion of gastroduodenal artery.