Cholera can be diagnosed with the help of detailed patient history and stool examination.
A patient history of watery stools especially during an epidemic should raise the suspicion of cholera.
Stool examination- Macroscopic / Gross Examination-
Stools resembles ‘rice water’ and contain mucus Microscopic Examination-
microscopic examination of stool sample shows rapidly motile V.cholerae
bacteria. Epithelial cells are also present in the stool sample. Culture-
A stool culture may be done to confirm the presence of V. cholerae
. Enrichment is done in alkaline peptone water at pH 8.7 for 6-8 hours incubation.
Typical yellow color colonies appear in thiosulfate-citrate-bile salts-sucrose (TCBS) agar after 18 hours of incubation. Organisms can be confirmed from culture by staining and examining under microscope. Specific Tests-
are further identified by slide agglutination tests using anti-O group 1 antiserum and by biochemical reactions.