Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disease which makes it challenging for the affected individuals to convert food to energy.
This leads to them having higher than normal levels of blood glucose with very little energy to go about their tasks.
Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus was common about couple of decades ago among the middle aged and the affluent; however with globalization and the changing lifestyles the disease is now very common in developing countries. India and China together hold the largest number of diabetics with India being known as the Diabetes Capital of the World.
6 million people in the USA have type 2 diabetes. India has a whopping 30 million and more people who are diabetics. According to a WHO estimate released in 1998, India will have the maximum number of diabetics in the world by 2025.
Normally, after a meal, the food consumed is broken down into glucose - which is a variety of carbohydrate referred popularly as ‘sugar’. Glucose is normally transported to different cells of the body to be converted into energy that is required for the cells to perform their functions. This conversion is carried out with the help of insulin, a hormone secreted by the pancreas.
Type 2 diabetes is brought about when the cells in the muscles, liver, and fat tissues fail to utilize insulin effectively. These result in a rise in the blood glucose levels with the cells remaining deprived of energy.
Increased levels of blood glucose eventually damage the nerves and blood vessels leading to severe health complications such as heart disease, stroke, kidney disease, infections in the gum, and also eye problems leading to blindness.
It is reported that nearly 8 percent of the adults in the USA have type 2 diabetes. Sadly, a good number of them are unaware of it, as they may not have any signs or symptoms.
Type 2 diabetes may occur in pregnant women and it is then called gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). In many of them the disease may clear after delivery. However, these women with previous gestational diabetes (p GDM), are at a higher risk of developing Type 2 diabetes later on in their life so much so that GDM is considered an early stage of the disease. It is also known to be an indicator of an increased risk for cardiovascular diseases.
In these modern times it is not uncommon to find children with Type 2 DM, whereas a few years ago only type 1 diabetes occurred in children. Childhood obesity, which is quite rampant among the affluent population, causes insulin resistance which in turn leads to full blown Type 2 DM. The disease causes several complications in children including cardiovascular disease, stroke, Myocardial Infarction (MI) and even sudden death. Renal complications and neuropathy is also common.
‘Pre-diabetes’ is a condition when the blood glucose level in an individual is greater than normal but lower than the usual diabetes values. This pre diabetic state predisposes an individual to diabetes and heart diseases. So once a person has been declared ‘pre- diabetic’ it is important for him to establish a sensible lifestyle, comprising of healthy diet and moderate exercises, in order to prevent the onset of the disease.
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Latest Publications and Research on Type 2 DiabetesAdiponectin-11377CG Gene Polymorphism and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in the Chinese Population: A Meta-Analysis of 6425 Subjects. - Published by PubMed
Reduction of the Cholesterol Sensor SCAP in the Brains of Mice Causes Impaired Synaptic Transmission and Altered Cognitive Function. - Published by PubMed
Validation of a Novel Method for Determining the Renal Threshold for Glucose Excretion in Untreated and Canagliflozin-treated Subjects With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. - Published by PubMed
A diabetes peer support intervention that improved glycemic control: mediators and moderators of intervention effectiveness. - Published by PubMed
The Role of TGF-ß in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome. - Published by PubMed