Stage of the disease decides its prognosis. Stage I is considered as early disease with good prognosis and a near 100% cure rate. Stage II and III considered more advanced or late disease with guarded prognosis.
Once the testicular tumor tissue is removed, it is subjected to histological examination by a pathologist. Testicular tumors staging is independent of the tumor size and is carried out in accordance with the TNM classification of malignant tumors (AJCC Cancer Staging Manuel).
Testicular tumors are broadly classified as follows-
Stage I- The cancer is localized to the region of the testis, epididymis and spermatic cord
Stage II- Besides involving the testis, the cancer has metastasized to the retroperitoneal and / or para aortic lymph nodes (located below the diaphragm)
Stage IIA: Nodes < 2 cms
Stage II B : Nodes 2-5 cms
Stage II C: Nodes > 5 cms
Stage III- The cancer has metastasized beyond the stage II. This stage is further divided into the non bulky and bulky stage III.