The causes of Mitral valve regurgitation are Acquired or Congenital. Congenital Mitral regurgitation is very rare and is usually secondary to some other associated congenital abnormalities.
The causes of acquired chronic mitral regurgitation include -
Rheumatic heart disease,
Coronary artery disease,
Mitral Valve Prolapse,
Secondary to dilated cardiomyopathy and aortic regurgitation.
An anti-obesity drug Fen-Phen contained Fenfluramine, also known as Pondimin was shown to cause mitral valve disease and cardiac fibrosis. Studies showed that this drug caused thickening of the valve leaflets and chordae tendinae. The drug was withdrawn from US market in 1997.
Chronic mitral regurgitation may be asymptomatic in the compensated phase, when the left ventricle hypertrophies and the left atrial size increases proportionately to maintain the cardiac output. When the patient progresses to the decompensated phase, there may be left ventricular dysfunction. He/She may have symptoms of heart failure. Pulmonary congestion increases.