Glaucoma refers to a group of eye disorders that leads to the damage of the optic nerve, often due to dangerous buildup of internal eye pressure (intraocular pressure or IOP).
Glaucoma affects people of all ages, from babies to adults. According to the World Health Organization, glaucoma is the second leading cause of blindness
(after cataract) in the world.
Ocular hypertension affects the optic nerve that transmits visual information to the brain. Glaucoma is called the 'silent creeping thief of sight' because it strikes without obvious symptoms
. If glaucoma is left untreated or uncontrolled, it initially causes peripheral vision loss and eventually can lead to blindness
. Types of glaucoma - Open-angle Glaucoma (Chronic Glaucoma)
- It is the most common type of glaucoma. This is completely painless and causes a very gradual loss of vision due to excessive production of aqueous humor (fluid inside the eye). Angle-closure Glaucoma (Narrow Angle Glaucoma/Acute Glaucoma)
- This type of glaucoma is far more rare than open angle glaucoma. It is characterized by blockage of the drainage system of the eye allowing fluid levels inside the eye to build and this leads to increased pressure. Onset can be sudden, accompanied with pain and redness of the eye. Congenital Glaucoma
- This is a rare type of glaucoma that is present at birth due to abnormal eye development. Secondary Glaucoma
- Secondary glaucoma may be caused by injuries to the eye, tumors, and other eye diseases. Pigmented Glaucoma
- Is a hereditary condition typically affecting young people. Is a hereditary condition which develops more frequently in men than in women. This condition affects young people and near sighted males. Normal Tension Glaucoma
- The inter ocular pressure (IOP) is normal in this type of glaucoma. However, poor blood flow to the optic nerve leads to glaucoma.