There are two types of gallstones -
► Cholesterol stones - They are yellow-green in color and mainly consist of hardened cholesterol. About 80% of gallstones are cholesterol stones.
► Pigment stones - They are small and dark stones made of bilirubin.
Most of the gallstones do not cause any symptoms. A typical gallstone attack is characterized by a steady and severe pain in the upper abdomen. Abdominal bloating, low grade fever with chills, indigestion and belching may also be present.
Ultrasound is the most sensitive and specific test for diagnosis of gallstones.
Gallstones are managed primarily with observation i.e. no treatment if there are no symptoms. Symptomatic gallstones are best treated by surgical removal of the gall bladder (cholecystectomy). Less commonly used treatment options include sphincterotomy and extraction of gallstones, dissolution of gallstones with oral medications and extra-corporeal shock-wave lithotripsy (ESWL).
Latest Publications and Research on GallstonesThe Pancreatic Head is Larger than often Assumed. - Published by PubMed
The Genetics of Complex Cholestatic Disorders. - Published by PubMed
Gallbladder-preserving Cholelithotomy in Laparoscopic and Flexible Choledochoscopic Era: A Report of 316 Cases. - Published by PubMed
Multi-analytic approach elucidates significant role of hormonal and hepatocanalicular transporter genetic variants in gallstone disease in north Indian population. - Published by PubMed
A Case of Hereditary Spherocytosis Coexisting with Gilbert's Syndrome. - Published by PubMed