The cells that may give rise to these neuroendocrine tumors (carcinoids) are called enterochromaffin cells. These cells are located throughout the body; however carcinoid tumors primarily occur in:
• Appendix (35% of all carcinoid tumors)
• Small intestine (22%)
• Lung (15%)
• Rectum (10%)
• Stomach (3%)
Carcinoid tumors may produce an excess of biologically active substances, such as serotonin, tachykinins (such as substance P), histamine, prostaglandins, etc. It is only when these secretions exceed particular amounts that symptoms start manifesting. The most common endocrine consequences of these tumors are –
• Cutaneous flushing,
• And heart diseases.
Risk Factors that increase the chances of this syndrome includes- Family history of genetic syndromes like Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia type 1 (MEN 1), pernicious anemia and run in the family.
Surgical removal is most effective when a carcinoid tumor and for symptoms Octreotide is a commonly used drug.
Latest Publications and Research on Carcinoid TumorsPostoperative radiotherapy for residual tumor of primary mediastinal carcinoid teratoma. - Published by PubMed
Biotherapies for GEP-NETs. - Published by PubMed
Neuroendocrine tumours of the small intestine. - Published by PubMed
Serotonin and the 5-HT7 receptor: the link between Hepatocytes, IGF-1 and Small intestinal neuroendocrine tumors. - Published by PubMed
Terminal Ileal Carcinoid Tumor without Hepatic or Extrahepatic Metastasis Causing Carcinoid Syndrome. - Published by PubMed