anesthesia should not be attempted when there is a lack of availability of proper or necessary equipment for the same.
Special consideration should be given to patient with abnormal bleeding and clotting parameters, liver disease. Furthermore, patients receiving anticoagulants such as Warfarin or Heparin are at increased risk.†
Patients with severe fluid loss either by bleeding, vomiting, diarrhoea should be replaced with adequate fluids before being taken up for spinal
anesthesia due to risk of
Patient refusal for the administration either due to lack of knowledge or preference for general
anesthesia. It might be possible to convince some patients if the situation is properly explained.†
Uncooperative patients such as children, mentally challenged individuals, patients with psychiatric disorders.†
Anatomical difficulties that might make the administration of
Presence of neurological disease, infection of skin over the back potential risk of infection to the patient, surgeonís refusal to the administration.