The following tests may be used to diagnose prune belly syndrome:
- Blood tests to assess kidney function
- Radiological tests like x-ray, ultrasound, intravenous pyelogram and voiding cysto-urethrogram to detect abnormalities relating to the urinary tract, the testes and other organs.
Treatment of prune belly syndrome includes the following:
- If there is no obstruction to the flow of urine, antibiotics are administered to the child to prevent urine infection.
- In cases where obstruction to the flow of urine is present, a temporary procedure like a vesicostomy may be performed to facilitate drainage of urine and preserve kidney function till the child is old enough to undergo surgery. Progressive urethral dilatations may be performed to relieve the obstruction. Other procedures like placement of a percutaneous nephrostomy tube, or standard pyeloplasty may also be performed.
- Frequent urinary tract infections should be treated with antibiotics.
- Surgery for undescended testes should preferably be performed within the first 6 months of age.
- Surgical reconstruction of the abdominal wall may be carried out.
- Renal transplantation may be an option in kidney failure patients.
A number of children suffering from prune belly syndrome are stillborn or die within the first few months of life. Prognosis or outcome of the disease depends on the kidney and lung development. Death could occur due to lung complications, kidney failure or both.