This form of administration has many applications and was first used in humans in the year 1921. It is a very versatile form in the sense that it can be used as an
anesthetic, in combination with general anesthesia, and to reduce
the post-operative pain following surgery of the lower limbs, perineum, pelvis, abdomen and thorax.
Epidural anesthesia is used for anesthetic for procedures involving the lower limbs, pelvis,
perineum and lower abdomen. It is also possible to perform upper abdominal and thoracic procedures under epidural
The advantage of epidural over spinal anesthesia is the ability to maintain continuous
anesthesia after placement of an epidural catheter, thus making it suitable for procedures of long duration. Following surgery, lower concentrations of
anesthetic drugs can also be introduced to relieve surgical pain.