Richard Greenberg and colleagues compared their Cell culture small pox vaccine (CCSV) derived from cell culture with calf lymph derived vaccine. Small pox vaccine currently used is a live, attenuated vaccine virus derived from calf lymph. This vaccine produces adverse effects in vaccinated, 15-42 develop serious or life threatening adverse reactions of every million. 1 to 2 people every million die because of this vaccine. Serious side include eczema vaccinatum, progressive vaccinia, post vaccinal encephalitis, fetal vaccine, vaccina keratitis, myopericarditis.
Small pox vaccine is contraindicated in up to 30% or more population, including infants, pregnant women, immunocompromised, eczema patients, and cardiovascular conditions.
In this trial, the safety and immunogenecity, adverse effects were determined by neutralization, Antibody titers, T-cell proliferative response assays and interferon-ã elispot. Only one vaccinated person developed pock lesions. The number of participants who became immune to the virus was high, with increased measures of cell mediated immunity in CCSV recipients. These results show CCSV vaccine is equally immunogenic and safe compared to calf lymph derived vaccine.
This new vaccine can solve the problem of calf lymph vaccine, as these existing stocks of calf lymph vaccine are mot than 20 years old, contamination by bovine prions can be avoided, unwanted immune response to bovine and other non-vaccina entities in vaccine.
Though, CCSV has advantages, we should be able to provide universal pre-exposure immunity to small pox. A safe, immunogenic, effective vaccine will provide a barrier against attempts to use small pox as a biological weapon. Research leading to the third generation vaccines, such as vaccinia viruses that are further attenuated, inactivated viruses, subunit or peptide based vaccines should have significant use to public health.