Paediatric TB is of concern as it is a reflection of the prevalence of sputum smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis and the extent of transmission of TB infection in the community. 6 to 8% of all new TB cases reported under the programme are of paediatric age group (0 to 14 years). In the year 2006, the percentage of paediatric cases reported at national level and Orissa State was 6% and 4% respectively.
As paediatric TB is a reflection of extent of transmission of TB infection in the community, detection and cure of adult tuberculosis will prevent the transmission of TB infection and hence reduce the burden of paediatric tuberculosis. Various steps taken under the programme to cut the chain of transmission and control of tuberculosis cases are:
· To achieve and maintain a cure rate of 85% amongst new sputum positive cases and to detect and maintain a case detection rate of at least 70% amongst such cases.
· Uninterrupted supply of quality drugs to patients in patient-wise boxes for the entire duration of treatment under direct observation (DOTS).
· All children <6 yrs of age who are household contacts of smear positive TB cases are screened for TB and after excluding active tuberculosis are offered chemoprophylaxis using Isoniazid (INH) 5mg/kg body weight.
· BCG vaccination is available under the Universal Immunization Programme (UIP) in the country which prevents severe form of TB in children.
Management of paediatric TB is one of the activities under Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme.
This information was given by the Minister of State for Health & Family Welfare, Smt. Panabaka Lakshmi on 4th May, 2007 in a written reply to a question in the Rajya Sabha.