Study Finds Prion Proteins in Milk

by Medindia Content Team on  February 24, 2007 at 3:38 PM Research News   - G J E 4
Study Finds Prion Proteins in Milk
A study has identified the presence of normal prion proteins in milk from humans, cows, sheep, and goats.

"Prion Protein in Milk" appeared in the December issue of PLoS One, an online journal from the Public Library of Science, available at

Infectious prion proteins cause transmissible spongiform encephalopathies in many species, including scrapie in sheep. In view of a recent study showing evidence of prion replication in the mammary gland of sheep with scrapie and mastitis, the authors of the new study conclude that the presence of normal prions in milk implies a possibility that milk from animals with TSEs serves as a source of infectious prions.

The study found that the absolute amount of normal prion proteins in milk differed among species, with sheep milk containing more than human milk. The study also identified prions in homogenized and pasteurized off-the-shelf milk. Even ultrahigh temperature treatment only partially diminished the concentration.

The authors note that scientific groups, risk assessment agencies, and public health organizations have debated the TSE risk for milk and milk products throughout the past decade. Epidemiologic and bioassay data have not provided evidence that milk harbors prion infectivity. Bioassays of the milk, colostrum, or udder of cows with BSE have not as yet detected infectious prions.

Source: Bio-Bio Technology

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What is swine flu?
Swine influenza (also called swine flu) refers to influenza caused by any strain of the influenza virus endemic in pigs (swine). Swine flu is rare in humans and common in swine. Those who are highest at risk usually have occupational contact with swine, such as people who work in close proximity with pigs. Normally the swine flu does not jump across species from swine to human. Rarely, Swine influenza virus mutates into a form able to pass easily from human to human. In humans, the symptoms of swine flu are similar to those of influenza-like illness. Common symptoms include fever, sore throat, chills, muscle pains, coughing, general malaise, and headache. The 2009 outbreak has shown an increased percentage of patients reporting diarrhea and vomiting.
What makes the 2009 flu outbreak in humans significant is due to a new strain of influenza A virus subtype H1N1. This subtype derives in part from avian influenza, human influenza, and two separate strains of swine influenza. Unlike ordinary swine flu, it passes with great ease from human to human. Fortunately, only mild symptoms are encountered and the infected individual usually makes a full recovery without requiring medical attention and without the use of anti-viral medicines. Those who are immuno-compromised, such as older adults, infants, and those with weak constitition and adrenals may be more prone to this flu.

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