Leading health officials said an additional $50 million would be made available immediately for cutting-edge Alzheimer's research and that the fiscal year 2013 budget to be released next week would boost such funding by $80 million.
An additional $26 million will also be allocated to "caregiver support, provider education, public awareness and improvements in data infrastructure," officials said.
"Today's announcement reflects this administration's commitment to confronting Alzheimer's, a disease that takes a devastating toll on millions of Americans," said Health and Human Services Secretary Kathleen Sebelius.
Some 5.1 million Americans currently suffer from Alzheimer's disease, a degenerative brain disorder for which there is no cure.
Due to the aging population, the number of people with Alzheimer's disease in the United States is projected to more than double by 2050.
"These projections are simply staggering," said National Institutes of Health (NIH) Director Francis S. Collins.
"This new funding will accelerate NIH's effort to use the power of science to develop new ways of helping people with Alzheimer's disease and those at risk."
The research funds will be directed toward basic and clinical research, identifying genes that increase the risk of Alzheimer?s disease and testing therapies in people at high risk, officials said.
Funds may also help speed new clinical trials on treatment approaches and help develop better national databases on the extent of cognitive impairment and dementia.