The following interventions have been taken under The National Rural Health Mission (NRHM) to reduce neonatal mortality rates in India:
- Promotion of Institutional Delivery through Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY) and Janani Shishu Suraksha Karyakram (JSSK): Promoting Institutional delivery to ensure skilled birth attendance is key to reducing both maternal and neo-natal mortality. JSY incentivizes pregnant women to opt for institutional delivery and provides for cash assistance. JSSK entitles all pregnant women to absolutely free and zero expense delivery including caesarean section operation in Government health facilities and provides for free to and fro transport, food, drugs and diagnostics. Similar entitlements have also been put in place for sick neonates.
- Strengthening Facility based newborn care: Newborn care corners (NBCC) are being set up at all health facilities where deliveries take place to provide essential newborn care at birth to all new born babies; Special New Born Care Units (SNCUs) at District Hospitals and New Born Stabilization Units (NBSUs) at FRUs are being set up for the care of small and sick newborn. As on date 565 SNCUs, 1904 NBSUs and 14163 NBCCs are functional across the country.
- Home Based Newborn Care (HBNC): Home based newborn care through ASHA has been initiated to improve new born care practices at the community level and for early detection and referral of sick new born babies.
- Ensuring single dose of Injection Vitamin K prophylaxis in all the births in all the public and private health facilities even at the sub centre by ANM.
- Provision of Support in the annual state plans for up scaling of Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC) in all health facilities.
- Empowering frontline health service providers (ANMs) to give a pre referral dose of antenatal corticosteroid (Injection Dexamethasone) to pregnant women going into preterm labour and pre-referral dose of Injection Gentamicin and Syrup Amoxicillin to newborns for the management of sepsis in young infants.
- Capacity building of health care providers: Various trainings are being conducted under National Rural Health Mission (NRHM) to build and upgrade the skills of doctors, nurses and ANM for early diagnosis and case management of common ailments of children and care of newborn at time of birth.
- Management of Malnutrition: Emphasis is being laid on reduction of malnutrition which is an important underlying cause of child mortality. 891 Nutritional Rehabilitation Centres have been established for management of Severe Acute Malnutrition (SAM). Exclusive breastfeeding for first six months and appropriate infant and young child feeding practices are being promoted in convergence with Ministry of Woman and Child Development.
- Village Health and Nutrition Days (VHNDs) are organized for imparting nutritional counselling to mothers and to improve child care practices.
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