Researchers at University of Missouri have found that while some exercises may be beneficial for obese men, they may not be as effective for obese women who have to work harder to gain the same amount of benefits.
These findings could help health providers and researchers develop targeted exercise interventions for obese women.
"Our results indicate gender may contribute to differences in cardiovascular function of obese individuals with Type 2 diabetes. Men saw improvement after aerobic exercise training, but the women did not experience the same benefits," said Jill Kanaley, a professor in the Department of Nutrition and Exercise Physiology at MU.
Kanaley and her colleagues monitored cardiovascular responses, such as heart rate and blood pressure, of nearly 75 obese men and women with Type 2 diabetes. To monitor cardiovascular responses, the individuals completed an isometric handgrip test, which involves continually and forcefully squeezing an object for a few minutes, at the beginning and end of a structured, 16-week walking program.
"What this research highlights, at least using the handgrip test, is that the advantages we think exercise is going to give individuals may not be the same across genders, particularly for those who have Type 2 diabetes," Kanaley said.
Obese women with Type 2 diabetes might benefit from longer durations or higher intensities of exercise, Kanaley said.
In addition, Kanaley said more concern should be placed on how long it takes cardiovascular function to return to normal after exercise as well as how fast the heart beats during physical exertion.
"A lot of people focus on how high individuals' heart rates get during exercise, but their recovery rates also should be monitored," Kanaley said.
"When you exercise, you want your blood pressure to rise, but you don't want it to get too high. Your blood pressure should return to normal relatively quickly after you stop exercise. In our study, the recovery rate for women was not as rapid as for men. After the men trained, they got an even better recovery time, whereas women's time stayed about the same," she stated.
The study was published in the December issue of Metabolism.