A new study has found that the effects of smoking
during one's pregnancy can span generations. According to the study, smoking
during pregnancy can affect the growth of a woman's future grandkids.
British scientists discovered that with
non-smoking mothers, if a paternal grandmother smoked during pregnancy, her
granddaughters tended to be taller and both her granddaughters and grandsons
tended to have greater bone mass and lean (muscle) mass.
If a maternal grandmother smoked during the
period of pregnancy, her grandsons became heavier than expected during
adolescence, with increased lean mass, grip strength and cardiovascular
When both the mother and the maternal grandmother
had smoked, girls had reduced height and weight compared with girls whose
mothers, but not grandmothers, smoked.
Researchers say, these findings need to be taken
into account in future studies of the effects of maternal smoking on child
growth and development. "If replicated, such studies could be a useful
model for the molecular analysis of human transgenerational responses,"
The study was published in the American Journal of