The breath of Ram Thapa gave off alcohol odour when the policeman leaned in and reported that the motorcyclist had failed the 'smell test' under a stringent new drink-driving crackdown in Nepal.
The 27-year-old is among thousands of road users falling foul of a "zero-tolerance" policy introduced in the capital Kathmandu, with police relying on just their noses to decide whether an offence has been committed.
AdvertisementThapa had his licence seized and was issued with a 1,000 rupee ($12) fine, but was then allowed to continue on his journey.
"I would have left my bike and taken a taxi if I was too drunk. But what they did is catch me just blocks away from my home," recalled Thapa, who said he had drunk just three small glasses of rice wine.
"I think a limited amount of alcohol, as in other countries, must be permitted for the drivers."
With breathalysers scarce and blood tests unavailable, the method for catching lawbreakers in Kathmandu is primitive as police officers simply stop drivers and engage them in conversation.
If they believe they smell alcohol, they then question the suspect and decide whether to seize their licence and issue the fine.
While most countries tolerate traces of alcohol in motorists' blood, Kathmandu is among about 20 capital cities worldwide where alcohol is legally available but citizens must only drive if they have drunk none at all.
The crackdown has raised hackles among the city's indigenous Newar community, who describe it as an attack on their culture, which for hundreds of years has placed alcohol at the centre of its religious and social life.
"Zero-tolerance to alcohol could hamper our social intricacies," Arjun Bhandari, a leading wine importer, wrote in a recent commentary in the Republica newspaper.
"For Newars, every festival is celebrated by offering some alcohol to family and friends. Century-old traditions can't be wiped out overnight without any education or alternative solutions."
Amrit Kansakar, 46, one of 30,000 people to have been forced to attend talks on the dangers of drink-driving, is among many Newars who are angry over the law and how it is being enforced.
"Drink-driving alone cannot be blamed for accidents. There are other reasons and most accidents occur due to drivers' carelessness," he said. "As per our Newari custom, we have to take alcohol at every social occasion.
"The evening I was caught, I had attended a relative's funeral."
The hospitality industry also has complained it has suffered since police got tough six months ago but taxi companies have prospered and the city has raised 30 million rupees in fines.
"Last year, during a six-month period, there were 253 road accidents," said Bipin Gautam, an inspector who runs the talks for drink-drivers. "But since December 3, when we began, to May 30, there were only 49 accidents."
Ganesh Rai, deputy inspector general of Kathmandu Traffic Police, who is overseeing the zero-tolerance policy, says that those who oppose it are misguided.
"The culture factor is just an excuse. We haven't banned drinking. All we have done is ban the drink-driving," he told AFP.
"Earlier, accidents used to occur regularly, especially during the night," said Rai. "In most cases, the cause was drink driving. So, we realised that if we can stop that, we can significantly reduce the accidents."
While there were less than 5,000 vehicles in all of Nepal 20 years ago, now more than 800,000 ply just Kathmandu's roads.
Two months ago, police introduced breathalysers following complaints about the "smell test", but half of the 150 devices malfunctioned, forcing officers to again rely on their noses.
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