For non-smoking to-be-moms, even secondhand smoking is dangerous as it can lead to pregnancy loss, including miscarriage, stillbirth and tubal ectopic pregnancy, says a research.
The study considered the pregnant woman's exposure to secondhand smoking not only during pregnancy, but during the childhood and adult years.
Even though they had not smoked themselves, women who experienced the highest level of secondhand smoking showed higher risk of facing all the three pregnancy problems, the study stated.
For the study, the highest levels of lifetime secondhand smoking exposure meant the woman experienced passive smoking for more than 10 years in childhood, for over 20 years at home during adulthood and for more than 10 years as an adult worker.
And compared to women who had never smoked, women who have smoked during their reproductive years had 16 per cent more chance of a miscarriage, 44 per cent more chance of having a stillborn child and 43 per cent more chance to experience an ectopic pregnancy.
The study, conducted at Roswell Park Cancer Institute (RPCI) and the University at Buffalo, analysed details of a group of 80,762 women.
"This study offers new information for women regarding the lifetime impact secondhand smoke can have on reproductive outcomes and their ability to successfully bring a pregnancy to full term," said lead investigator, Andrew Hyland, Chair of RPCI's Department of Health Behaviour.
A recent study said that asthmatic children when become passive smokers at home do not respond to treatment as it reduces certain key enzyme in the body.
The findings of the study published in journal Tobacco Control said that younger and more educated women showed less chance of facing these complications compared to black women and those belonging to other minority groups.