A drug from Gila monster saliva effectively reduces cravings for food, say researchers.
Researchers at the Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, found that rats treated with the drug ceased their cravings for both food and chocolate.
An increasing number of patients suffering from type 2 diabetes are offered a pharmaceutical preparation called Exenatide, which helps them to control their blood sugar.
The drug is a synthetic version of a natural substance called exendin-4, which is obtained from a rather unusual source - the saliva of the Gila monster lizard (Heloderma suspectum), North America's largest lizard.
Researchers at the Sahlgrenska Academy have now found an entirely new and unexpected effect of the lizard substance.
In a study with rats, Assistant Professor Karolina Skibicka and her colleagues show that exendin-4 effectively reduces the cravings for food.
"This is both unknown and quite unexpected effect," said Skibicka.
"Our decision to eat is linked to the same mechanisms in the brain which control addictive behaviours. We have shown that exendin-4 affects the reward and motivation regions of the brain," she noted.
"The implications of the findings are significant," stated Suzanne Dickson, Professor of Physiology at the Sahlgrenska Academy.
"Most dieting fails because we are obsessed with the desire to eat, especially tempting foods like sweets. As exendin-4 suppresses the cravings for food, it can help obese people to take control of their weight," Professor Dickson suggested.
Research on exendin-4 also gives hope for new ways to treat diseases related to eating disorders, for example, compulsive overeating.
Another hypothesis for the Gothenburg researchers' continuing studies is that exendin-4 may be used to reduce the craving for alcohol.
"It is the same brain regions which are involved in food cravings and alcohol cravings, so it would be very interesting to test whether exendin-4 also reduces the cravings for alcohol," suggested Assistant Professor Skibicka.
The study was published in the Journal of Neuroscience.