Men are actually more vain and self-centric than women, revealed a study by University at Buffalo School of Management. The study which included data of 3 decades from more than 475,000 participants, revealed that men, consistently scored higher in narcissism across multiple generations and regardless of age, in comparison to women.
Lead author Emily Grijalva said, "Narcissism is associated with various interpersonal dysfunctions, including an inability to maintain healthy long-term relationships, unethical behavior and aggression. At the same time, it is shown to boost self-esteem, emotional stability and the tendency to emerge as a leader. By examining gender differences in narcissism, they might be able to explain gender disparities in these important outcomes."
AdvertisementDuring the study, the researchers examined more than 355 journal articles, dissertations, manuscripts and technical manuals, and studied gender differences in the three aspects of narcissism- leadership/authority, grandiose/exhibitionism and entitlement, and found the widest gap in entitlement, suggesting that men are more likely than women to exploit others and feel entitled to certain privileges. The second largest difference was noted in leadership/authority.
Grijalva said, "Individuals tend to observe and learn gender roles from a young age, and may face backlash for deviating from society's expectations. In particular, women often receive harsh criticism for being aggressive or authoritative, which creates pressure for women, more so than for men, to suppress displays of narcissistic behavior."
The researchers speculate that the persistent lack of women in senior leadership roles may partially stem from the disparity between stereotypes of femininity and leadership. The authors feel that future research could further investigate the social, cultural or biological factors that contribute to these gender differences.
The study will be published in the journal Psychological Bulletin.