A study has found that the longer a Hispanic woman lives in the United States the more she is at risk of preterm birth (PTB), especially those who were born in the U.S.
This is the main finding of a study by researchers at the University of Texas Medical Branch (UTMB) at Galveston who sought to shed light on possible environmental factors in PTB. It is one of several studies from UTMB presented this week at the Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine's (SMFM) 32nd Annual Meeting in Dallas.
"Though we don't know whether preterm birth is predominately related to genetic or environmental factors, our research shows that preterm birth is at least strongly related to our environment in ways that are potentially preventable," said principal investigator Dr. Radek Bukowski, professor of obstetrics and gynecology in the Division of Maternal-Fetal Medicine at UTMB.
More than half a million babies are born prematurely each year in the U.S.; the cause is unknown in as many as 40 percent of cases.
Using data from a population study of more than 2,140 Hispanic women with a prior live birth who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1999-2006), the researchers observed that the PTB prevalence rate for women residing in the U.S. for fewer than 10 years was four percent; after 10 years, that rate rose to 7.4 percent. Hispanic women born in the U.S. had a PTB prevalence rate of 9.5 percent.
The researchers adjusted for age, body mass index, education, marital status, income, current and prior smoking, diabetes and hypertension, among other potential factors. "We were surprised to find that the risk was nearly twice as high for women living in the U.S. for more than 10 years and was almost three times higher for women born here," said Bukowski. "These findings confirm the link between preterm birth and environmental factors. However, it remains unclear what specific environmental features may predispose or protect women from preterm birth. That said, because the risk factors appear to have been acquired while living in the U.S., it is likely that they are modifiable," added Bukowski.