- Smoking 20 or more cigarettes everyday increases the risk of diabetes in Blacks.
- Smoking is associated with insulin resistance, inflammation and dyslipidemia which increase the risk of diabetes.
- Quitting smoking decreases blood pressure and triglyceride levels, and enhances glycemic control.
The risk of diabetes in Blacks especially, increases if they smoke 20 or more cigarettes a day, according to a preliminary study presented at the American Heart Association's Scientific Sessions 2016.
Researchers studied nearly 3,000 black participants in the Jackson Heart study, who reported their smoking status. During the study, 466 people were diagnosed with diabetes. While diabetes incidence was similar among those smoking less than a pack day, past smokers and never smokers, the risk of diabetes was 62 percent higher for those smoking more than a pack a day.
Although smoking is known to decrease body weight, it is associated with central obesity. Smoking also increases inflammation and oxidative stress, to directly damage β-cell function and to impair endothelial function.
The exact mechanism for why smoking increases the risk of diabetes and deteriorates glucose homeostasis has not been fully elucidated, but the available evidence shows that smoking increases insulin resistance.
Previous studies show that smokers had a significantly increased homeostatic model assessment insulin resistance index an hour after smoking. The smoking reduced insulin mediated glucose uptake by 10% to 40% in men who smoked compared with non-smoking men.
"Smoking cessation should be strongly encouraged in blacks with risk factors for diabetes," researchers said. Wendy White, Ph.D., Tougaloo College, Tougaloo, Mississippi.