Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are found in human adult tissues such as synovial tissues, bone marrow, and adipose tissues. They are derived from mesoderm and are differentiated into cartilage, bone, adipose tissues and muscles. Many scientists believe that adult stem cells are quite useful in transplanting into the damaged tissues.
Successful cartilage regeneration requires enhancement of chondrogenic potential, better handling operation and better MSCs adhesion efficacy. The application of aggregate mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) obtained from synovium is a hopeful option for cartilage regeneration.
AdvertisementShiro Suzuki and colleagues investigated the usefulness and properties of aggregates of synovial mesenchymal stem cells as a potent source of cartilage regeneration.
For the purpose of study, hanging drop technique was used to aggregate both human and rabbit synovial mesenchymal stem cells.
Both in vitro and in vivo chondrogenic potential of synovial mesenchymal stem cells aggregates were evaluated.
In rabbits, in vivo studies showed mesenchymal stem cells aggregates sticking by surface tension on the osteochondral defects. The in vitro studies revealed synthesis of high amount of pellets of cartilage matrix obtained from mesenchymal stem cells aggregates in comparison to pellets of mesenchymal stem cells cultured in monolayer.
It was noticed that transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells aggregates at low density resulted in successful cartilage regeneration as compared to transplantation at high density because at high density loss of nutrient and cell death of mesenchymal stem cells occurred.
It was finally accepted that mesenchymal stem cells aggregate derived from synovium were a potential source of cartilage regeneration owing to their easy preparation, able attachment and high chondrogenic potential.
Properties and usefulness of aggregates of synovial mesenchymal stem cells as a source for cartilage regeneration; Shiro Suzuki et al; Arthritis Research and Therapy 2012