Binge eating disorder
is a common eating disorder affecting both males and females. It involves
episodes of uncontrollable eating.
Binge eaters usually
eat more quickly than others. They eat until uncomfortably full and eat even
when they are not hungry. To avoid embarrassment, they usually eat alone. They
feel depressed and guilty after over-eating.
are a common feature of binge eating. They are further divided into non-purging
and purging behaviors. Purging behaviors include self-induced vomiting and use
of diuretics and laxatives, while non-purging behaviors involve use of diet
pills, dietary restraints and exercises.
Dawit Shawel and
colleagues conducted a study to explore gender differences and age trends in
binge eating, purging and non-purging compensatory behaviors and their
association with psychological problems.
For the purpose of
study, data was collected from the national representative longitudinal study
"Young in Norway" from individuals aged between 14 to 34 years. Analyses of covariance,
logistic random intercept models and
χ2 tests were the
methods used for the assessment of the data.
compensatory behaviors were recorded by the six items on the scale of severity
of the Bulimic Investigatory Test, Edinburgh (BITE). Because of the small size
of the purging group, binge eating with non-purging compensatory behaviors and
binge eating with purging compensatory behaviors could not be separated.
Eating problems were
also evaluated with two general measures- the BITE scale and the Eating
Attitude Test-12 (EAT-12).
Satisfaction was recorded by the Body Areas Satisfaction Scale (BASS). Seven
body areas or factors were taken into consideration while assessing level of
satisfaction- lower torso, face, upper torso, mid-torso, weight, height and
were recorded by the 6-item Depressive Mood Inventory constructed by Kandel and
Anxiety symptoms were
measured by six items obtained from Hopkins Symptoms Checklist.
General Self-worth was
recorded by the Global Self-Worth subscale of a revised version of the Harter's
Perception Profile for Adolescents.
was noted by asking the volunteers how often they drank to be completely
inebriated in the past twelve months.
parents was recorded by recording their emotional relationship with their
parents. The short version of Parental Bonding Instrument was used for
assessing the bonding with parents.
Self concept was
recorded by a revised version of Rosenberg's Stability of Self Scale.
Social support was
assessed by the five items of the Social Support Questionnaire.
recorded by a 5-item version of the UCLA Loneliness Scale.
Body mass index was
calculated from height and weight, age was noted at the time of survey and
gender was coded 1 for males and 2 for females.
A decline was noticed
in the occurrence of compensatory behaviors in both genders from adolescence to
young adulthood. In females, binging also showed a marked decrease over time. Females were more prone to purging and the
habit of purging was related with serious psychological ailments
was associated with high degree of anxiety, dissatisfaction, alcohol
consumption, loneliness, self-concept instability and depressive symptoms.
It was concluded that
people affected with purging should be regarded as high-risk group. Further
researches should be done to investigate the factors affecting eating disorders
in adolescent years and in adulthood.
Binge Eating, Purging and Non-purging
Compensatory Behaviours Decrease from Adolescence to Adulthood; Dawit Shawel et
al; BMC Public Health