Smoking has been associated with the development of
diabetes. It is also more commonly associated with complications in diabetics
like premature death, and heart, kidney, eye and nerve disease.
Smoking has also been found to be associated with
psychiatric problems like depression and anxiety. Besides, diabetes is also
associated with depression and anxiety.
A study was conducted to determine the prevalence of
depression and anxiety and the degree of nicotine dependence in smokers with
type 2 diabetes. The researchers also evaluated whether the degree of nicotine
dependence is related to anxiety and depression in smokers.
The participants, all over the age of 30 years, were
divided into 3 groups, each containing 46 participants. The first group
included type 2 diabetes patients who were smokers, the second group included
non-smoking diabetes patients and the third group included non-diabetic
smokers. The HAD scale was used to assess anxiety and depression, whereas FTND
was used to assess the degree of nicotine dependence.
The study found that
The incidence of anxiety and depression were
higher in females than in males.
• There were
no significant differences with respect to anxiety and depression in the three groups
Diabetic nonsmoking men
were 85% less likely to suffer from anxiety as compared to men from the smoker cum diabetes group.
• The prevalence of anxiety and depression were similar among nicotine
dependents and non-dependents.
A high prevalence of
depression and anxiety among the groups was observed; this may be due to their
association with diabetes and smoking.
Since the above study was carried out in a small
group of participants, the above findings should be established in larger
Osme SF. Difference between the prevalence of symptoms of depression and
anxiety in non-diabetic smokers and in patients with type 2 diabetes with and
without nicotine dependence. Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome 2012, 4:39.