According to a recent study, the prevalence of anxiety and depression is similar in smokers with or without diabetes.
Smoking has been associated with the development of diabetes. It is also more commonly associated with complications in diabetics like premature death, and heart, kidney, eye and nerve disease.
AdvertisementSmoking has also been found to be associated with psychiatric problems like depression and anxiety. Besides, diabetes is also associated with depression and anxiety.
A study was conducted to determine the prevalence of depression and anxiety and the degree of nicotine dependence in smokers with type 2 diabetes. The researchers also evaluated whether the degree of nicotine dependence is related to anxiety and depression in smokers.
The participants, all over the age of 30 years, were divided into 3 groups, each containing 46 participants. The first group included type 2 diabetes patients who were smokers, the second group included non-smoking diabetes patients and the third group included non-diabetic smokers. The HAD scale was used to assess anxiety and depression, whereas FTND was used to assess the degree of nicotine dependence.
The study found that
• The incidence of anxiety and depression were higher in females than in males.
• There were no significant differences with respect to anxiety and depression in the three groups.
• Diabetic nonsmoking men were 85% less likely to suffer from anxiety as compared to men from the smoker cum diabetes group.
• The prevalence of anxiety and depression were similar among nicotine dependents and non-dependents.
• A high prevalence of depression and anxiety among the groups was observed; this may be due to their association with diabetes and smoking.
Since the above study was carried out in a small group of participants, the above findings should be established in larger populations.
Osme SF. Difference between the prevalence of symptoms of depression and anxiety in non-diabetic smokers and in patients with type 2 diabetes with and without nicotine dependence. Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome 2012, 4:39.