- Single Nucleotide
Polymorphisms (SNPs) in the chromosome 9p21 increase the risk for
- Study conducted to analyze if the
'Prudent Diet' lowers the risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD).
show lowered risk for CVD with reduction in body composition.
influence on coronary heart disease has been a source of intense study over the
past few years. The most significant single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) that
has been associated with myocardial infarction, revascularization or angina has
been the mutation at chromosome 9p21.
identified the association between this polymorphism and cardiovascular disease
when they analyzed study subjects who were affected
by cardiovascular disease with no known prior risk factor. The mutations that
existed in the study subjects were not present in the controls.
‘Eating plenty of vegetables lowers cardiovascular disease risk.’
Between SNP at 9p21 and Cardiovascular Disease
Riyaz S. Patel
and colleagues from The University College London carried out a meta-analysis of
the research data available on the SNP at 9p21 and cardiovascular risk. The
analysis showed that there was a consistent association between cardiovascular
risk and SNP at 9p21.
Dietary Factors on Cardiovascular Disease Risk in People with SNP at 9p21
George Hindy and
colleagues from Lund University, Sweden studied the effect of dietary factors
like intake of high volume of vegetables and consumption of wine on increased
cardiovascular risk among people with 9p21 single nucleotide polymorphism
rs4977574. The study showed that people who carried the mutation rs4977574
showed an increased risk for cardiovascular disease among people who consumed
moderate to high level of vegetables and little or no consumption of wine.
Further, among individuals who carried the risk allele, there was an elevated
level of HbA1C
for those who consumed low level of vegetables.
Genetic Intervention Pilot Study
Zulyniak and colleagues from McMaster University studied the effect of two
different types of diet on the risk of cardiovascular disease among people with
9p21 SNP. This study titled "A randomized controlled trial of the effects of a
prudent diet on cardiovascular risk factors, gene expression, and DNA
methylation - the Diet and Genetic Intervention (DIGEST) Pilot study" was published
in BMC Nutrition.
participants were recruited into the study through newspaper advertisements and
were young and healthy men and women. The promise of free provision for the
duration of the study was a major attraction for the participants along with
the provision of the genetic risk for cardiovascular disease.
participants were allowed to make their own meals based on their taste and
preferences for spices. Cooking fat and ingredients were provided along with
recommended meal preparation guide.
- This diet is based on the DASH (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension) diet
- Low saturated
fat by including plant proteins, lean animal protein, dairy fats.
in fruits and vegetables, whole grains, poultry, nuts and vegetable oils.
on processed food.
- 6 cups of
vegetables and fruits were provided to the study participant every day
- The diet provided 40g of fiber per 2000
kcal from vegetables, fruits, nut and whole grains.
- This diet included a lot of
processed meat, high-fat dairy products, eggs, red meat
browns and french fries
- High sugar drinks and sweets
than 3 cups of vegetables and fruits were provided, mostly in the form of
- The diet provided less than 14g of fiber per 2000
Both the diets
were considered to be palatable to the study
participants. The period of study was selected to be 2 weeks to understand the
initial effects of these nutritional interventions.
The results of
the study showed that there was a slight lowering of the risk for
cardiovascular disease along with small changes to the body composition for
those participants following the prudent diet. This shows that epigenetic
factors play a role in cardiovascular health.
A leading cardiologist from Chennai, Dr Parthasarathy Harikrishnan
had this to say about the study and the benefits of eating a diet rich in fruits and vegetables " This is a very good study proving once again that modifying our lifestyle in the form of PRUDENT DIET, lowers traditional cardiovascular risk factors in the form of reduced blood pressure and reduced bad cholesterol levels. This once again underlines the fact that " WE DO NOT NEED TO DIET BUT SHOULD EAT RIGHT"."
Dr Harikrishnan believes that the PRUDENT diet is a good diet and that "The PRUDENT DIET with high fruit and veg content with low saturated fat content should be followed from childhood and adults should set an example to children. This study underlines this concept and proves that this is true even in those with high cardiovascular risk in the form of genetic polymorphism at 9p21."
Commenting on the Indian scenario, Dr Harikrishnan feels "In the Indian concept we should avoid blindly copying the Western diet and eat healthy Indian food along with plenty of fruits and vegetables. Plenty of exercises should be undertaken and incorporated as part of our day to day routine."
- Riyaz S. Patel, Folkert W.
Asselbergs, Arshed A. Quyyumi, Tom M. Palmer, Chris I. Finan, Vinicius
Tragante,,§ John Deanfield, Harry Hemingway,Aroon D. Hingorani, and Michael V.
Holmes "Genetic Variants at Chromosome 9p21 and Risk of First Versus Subsequent
Coronary Heart Disease Events"; J Am Coll Cardiol. 2014 Jun 3
Hindy, Ulrika Ericson, Viktor Hamrefors, Isabel Drake, Elisabet Wirfält, Olle
Melander, and Marju Orho-Melander "The chromosome 9p21 variant interacts with
vegetable and wine intake to influence the risk of cardiovascular disease: a
population based cohort study" BMC Med Genet. 2014
A. Zulyniak, Russell J. de Souza, Andrew Mente, Sujane Kandasamy, Monisha
Nundy, Dipika Desai, Kripa Raman, Ranya Hasso, Guillaume Pare, Joseph Beyene
and Sonia S. Anand "A randomized controlled trial of the effects of a prudent
diet on cardiovascular risk factors, gene expression, and DNA methylation - the
Diet and Genetic Intervention (DIGEST) Pilot study" BMC Nutrition, 18th