microbes in the gut
dictated by the genes as well as the birthplace, according to scientists at
Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's Department of Energy and The Lawrence
Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab). The gut microbiome is
important to health and scientists have now identified specific genes in the
mouse model that are associated with an abundance of a specific microbe.
‘Genetics and early environment play a key role in determining an organism’s gut microbiota.’
Janet Jannsen, the corresponding author of the study said "We are starting
to tease out the importance of different variables, like diet, genetics and the
environment, on microbes in the gut. It turns out that early life history and
genetics both play a role."
study involved analyzing 50,000 genes, out of which 100 snippets were
identified that were found to affect the microbes in the gut. Some of these
identified genes were similar to genes found in the humans and associated with
disease conditions like Crohn's
, colon cancer, celiac disease
, arthritis and
Supporting the Immune
probiotic strain of Lactobacillus was found to be associated with multiple
genes and its presence improved a type of T cells in the body. This increased
immunity will go a long way in providing the right immunity.
first author of the study, Antoine Snijders of the Berkeley Lab said "We
know the microbiome likely plays an important role in fighting infections. We
found that the level of T-helper cells in the blood of mice is well explained
by the level of Lactobacillales in the gut. It's the same family of bacteria
found in yogurt and very often used as a probiotic."
studies used mice that were a 'collaborative cross' and which reflected the
genetic variations found in humans. 30 strains of the mice were initially
separated and placed in two different housing environments for the first four
weeks and the microbiome of their gut determined from fecal samples. The mice
were then placed in a third environment.
fecal samples indicated that the microbiome of the gut was dictated by the
original place of birth, the 'hometown' and that these microbes were
transferred to the offspring.
author of the study Jian-Hua Mao said "The early life environment is very
important for the formation of an individual's microbiome. The first dose of
microbes one gets comes from the mom, and that remains a strong influence for a
lifetime and even beyond."
Jannsen continues "Our findings could have some exciting implications for
people's health. In the future, perhaps people could have designer diets,
optimized according to their genes and their microbiome, to digest foods more
effectively or to modulate their susceptibility to disease."
Microbiomes in the Gut
human microbiome reference database that was set up in the year 2012 gave a
clear picture about the number of normal microflora that exists in our body and
their support in our health. The functions of the gut microbes in human health
- They aid in the digestion of
- They produce chemicals that are
- They aid in fighting auto-immune
- They aid in identifying harmful
species from the normal flora
- It can be used to identify liver disease
- The type of micro-organisms present
in the gut can either cause or prevent rheumatoid
- The micro-organisms that are
found in the gut are mostly bacteria
- They can reduce the risk for kidney stones.
microorganisms present in the gut are called gut
- The total genes of the gut microbiota are called
- The genes present in the gut microbiome are
150 fold more than the genes in the human.
micro-organisms present in a human are influenced by the type of birth -
whether vaginal or caesarean. It is found that vaginal birth exposes the baby
to micro-organisms that offer greater immunity. Children delivered using the
caesarean method tend to have poor immunity and have greater risk of becoming
food that we eat is not only a source of energy for us but for the gut
well. Therefore the type of food we eat leads to the
colonization of micro-organisms that feed on that type of food.
The gut microbiome is an important factor as it aids in
understanding the extent of support to the digestive process
intolerance is one such food intolerance that is present in a large number of
Indians, with 88% of South Indians considered to be lactose intolerant.
when following a South Indian diet, the symptoms associated with the condition
are not very predominant. When the individual travels to the U.S and stays
there for a period of time, the microflora of the gut probably changes, based
on the current study.
factor that could contribute to the gut microbiota is the lactobacillus species
in the yogurt available in India, which might not be available in the U.S. This
affects the extent of symptoms exhibited by the individual and within a period
of a few months, the lactose intolerance symptoms are more pronounced,
requiring the individual to consume lactose free milk.
current study aids in highlighting such instances where the gut microbiome
plays an important role in the health of the individual.
- The role of gut microorganisms in human
health - (http://www.eufic.org/article/en/artid/The_role_of_gut_microorganisms_in_human_health/)