- Increased body fat is associated with an increased risk of heart disease, osteoarthritis, sleep apnea, menstrual irregularities and several diseases.
- Current study shows concomitant oral intake of glucosyl hesperidin and caffeine regularly can have significant anti-obesity effects in subjects who are moderately obese.
A recent Japanese study published in the Nutrition Journal
suggests that regular oral intake of a combination of glucosyl hesperidin and caffeine could be beneficial in the prevention as well as the treatment of moderate obesity.
Anti-Obesity Effect of Glucosyl Hesperidin and Caffeine: Why the Study Was Done
The authors of the study wanted to assess the anti-obesity effects of combinations of dietary components consumed regularly
by the general population.
‘Concomitant intake of combinations of dietary components such as glucosyl hesperidin and caffeine can help in mild to moderate obesity.’
is a major public health concern globally with serious effects on overall health. The authors believe that if widely available and regularly consumed foods are proven to have a significant anti-obesity effect, it might help in reducing the levels of obesity and its consequences on the health and well-being of the individual and the population as a whole
How was the Study Conducted?
- The study was conducted in Fukuhara Clinic (Hokkaido, Japan) between April and August 2013, over a 12 week period.
- Participants involved 75 subjects (38 men and 37 women) aged between 20-65 years with a moderately high BMI between 24-30 kg/m2 and a serum triglyceride (TG) level between 100-250 mg/dL.
- After evaluating, the participants were assigned to 5 groups namely:
- 500-mg G-hesperidin
- 500-mg G-hesperidin with 25-mg caffeine
- 500-mg G-hesperidin with 50-mg caffeine
- 500-mg G-hesperidin with 75-mg caffeine
- Assignation to the different groups was by stratified randomization based on age, sex, and measurements of waist circumference.
- The test samples containing either placebo or the various combinations mentioned above were administered to the subjects as tablets.
- Along with certain specific instructions, the participants were advised to continue their regular lifestyle especially with regards to meal portion size and daily exercise routine.
- There were a total of 5 visits to the clinic during the period of the study. During each visit, the subjects underwent a physical examination including weight, calculation of BMI, blood and urine analysis. A record of their diet and exercise during the intervening period was submitted. In addition, the participants maintained a diary of the time of ingestion of the samples along with their subjective symptoms.
- A fat scan was done to measure total fat area, subcutaneous fat area and visceral fat area (fat surrounding internal organs).
Effects of Glucosyl Hesperidin and Caffeine Combination on Obesity
- Reduction in body weight at week 8 was significantly higher in the G-hesperidin with 75-mg caffeine group than in the placebo group.
- Lowering of the BMI in the G-hesperidin with 75-mg caffeine group was significantly more in comparison to those in the placebo group at week 8 and week 12.
- The BMI-lowering effect of G-hesperidin seemed to increase dose-dependently by the addition of caffeine.
- Reductions in waist circumference were notably greater in the G-hesperidin with 25 mg caffeine group than in the placebo group at week-8 and at week-12. Similar reductions were observed in the G-hesperidin with 75 mg caffeine group but the difference was not significant.
- Notable differences in subcutaneous fat area were observed in the glucosyl hesperidin with 75 mg caffeine group at 12 weeks. There was no significant difference in the visceral fat area.
- There were no significant differences in decreases in hip circumference between the placebo group, and groups that took G-hesperidin alone or with caffeine.
- Interestingly the changes in serum triglyceride levels in the hesperidin group as well as the hesperidin/caffeine combination groups did not vary significantly from the placebo group.
- Any adverse effects reported were judged to be not related to the intake of the test samples.
Possible Mechanism Of Anti-Obesity Effect of Glucosyl Hesperidin and Caffeine Glucosyl hesperidin
(G-hesperidin) is synthesized from hesperidin purified from oranges
) and dextrin
by enzymatic means.
It is believed that the TG-lowering effect of G-hesperidin is due to down-regulation of the synthesis/secretion of very-low-density lipoprotein in liver cells, inhibition of fatty acid synthesis, and induction of beta oxidation of fatty acids
in high-fat diet-fed rats. However the anti-obesity effect of G-hesperidin remains incompletely understood.
Prior studies have shown that caffeine induces fat breakdown of fat cells, fat oxidation, increased energy expenditure and thermogenic responses
. However, caffeine has not been shown to lower body fat significantly in humans.
Earlier studies by the same research team have shown that a combination of G-hesperidin and caffeine reduces body fat through accumulation (at least partly) by inhibition of lipid synthesis in the liver
, on high-fat diet-induced obesity in mice. Conclusion
The findings of the study suggest that concomitant ingestion of glucosyl hesperidin 500 mg and caffeine 75 mg significantly decreased abdominal fat, particularly in the subcutaneous area. Also body weight and BMI were reduced in persons with moderately high BMI.
A combination of glucosyl hesperidin and caffeine might prove beneficial in treatment as well as prevention of mild to moderate obesity. Further larger studies may be necessary to gain deeper insight into the mechanisms and establish the efficacy of this combination in addressing mild to moderate obesity. References:
- Tatsuya Ohara, Koutarou Muroyama, Yoshihiro Yamamoto,Shinji Murosaki.Oral intake of a combination of glucosyl hesperidin and caffeine elicits an anti-obesity effect in healthy, moderately obese subjects: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Nutrition Journal,(2016) DOI: 10.1186/s12937-016-0123-7