The World Heart Federation has published a report that the leading cause of increasing prevalence of cardiovascular disease among Indians is due to:
- Physical inactivity - 79% men and 83% women
- High fat diet - 51% men and 48% women
- High Blood Pressure - 33% men and 30% women
- Diabetes - 34% men and 37% women
‘Exercise training significantly controls cIMT progression among cardiac patients with no cardiac plaques.’
AdvertisementA recent study by Dr Rune Byrkjeland and colleagues analyzed the effect of exercise training on carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) development. This study, published in the Journal Cardiovascular Diabetology and titled "Effects of exercise training on carotid intima-media thickness in patients with type 2 diabetes and coronary artery disease. Influence of carotid plaques" monitored the effect of exercise training on the development of cIMT in patients with both:
a. Cardiovascular disease
b. Type 2 diabetes
Carotid Intima Media Thickness (cIMT):
Carotid Intima Media Thickness is a marker for atherosclerosis and other cardiovascular risk. Research studies by Professor Iana shimova on Carotid Intima Media Thickness (cIMT) and published in the journal of The European Society of Cardiology indicate that cIMT measurements should be carried out for patients at moderate risk for cardiovascular disease.
Moderate risk of cardiovascular disease- 1-5% of patients.
a. Large proportion of asymptomatic middle aged adults
b. 10 year risk of cardiovascular disease that could prove fatal
|2.||Hypertensive patients with moderate risk||
Intermediate risk: 6-20% of patients.
a. 10 years risk of death due to cardiovascular disease or myocardial infarction
b. First degree relative with cardiovascular disease
|4.||First atherosclerotic cardiovascular event||cIMT is not recommended|
The study participants underwent 150 minutes of exercise per week, which extended to 12 months of aerobic(2/3rd) as well as strength training(1/3rd) which included:
a. Group based with special instructors
b. Home based with individual training
cIMT measurements: cIMT measurements were carried out using high resolution ultrasonography.
Results of the Study:
- No significant change in cIMT progression among patients with carotid plaques
- A significant difference in cIMT between exercise group and control among patients with no carotid plaques.
- Patients with carotid plaques- Patients with advancedstages of cardiovascular disease with carotid plaques did not show changes in cIMT progression. This does not mean that exercise training is not beneficial for such patients, only that the marker for the disease continues to increase. Exercise could affect other parameters that could contribute to disease progression.
- Patients without carotid plaques- Patients who are at a moderate risk for cardiovascular disease and who do not have cardiac plaques show significant control over cIMT progression after exercise training. This is an indication that early inclusion of regular exercise will control disease progression.
1. Rune Byrkjeland, Knut-Haakon Stensæth, Sigmund Anderssen, Ida U. Njerve,Harald Arnesen, Ingebjørg Seljeflot and Svein Solheim, " Effects of exercise training on carotid intima-media thickness in patients with type 2 diabetes and coronary artery disease. Influence of carotid plaques" ; Cardiovascular Diabetology 2016, 15:13
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