Drinking 3-5 cups of coffee per day could cut an individual's cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality risk by up to 21%, suggests a new study.
The Institute for Scientific Information on Coffee's study highlights that the lowest CVD mortality risk is seen at an intake of approximately 3 cups of coffee per day, with a percentage risk reduction of up to 21%.
The study suggests an association between coffee consumption and CVD risk, proposing a "U-shaped" pattern whereby optimal protective effects were achieved with 3-5 cups of coffee per day. Drinking 3-4 cups of coffee per day is associated with an approximate 25% lower risk of developing type 2 diabetes compared to consuming none or less than 2 cups per day.
People with diabetes typically have a higher CVD mortality risk and therefore, this association may be linked to a decreased CVD risk. In males, a combination of 5 healthy behaviors (a healthy diet, moderate alcohol consumption (10 to 30 g/ day), no smoking, being physically active and having no abdominal adiposity) could prevent 79% of myocardial infarction events.
Half of CVD cases in women could be avoided by modifying lifestyle choices, as approximately 73% of CHD cases and 46% of clinical CVD are attributable to an unhealthy lifestyle. The report concludes that recent research supports the view that moderate coffee consumption at approximately 3 - 5 cups per day may have a protective effect against CVD mortality risk.
It is important to note that results differ between varying populations; it is suggested that 2 cups of coffee per day may offer the greatest protection in a Japanese population, whilst 3 cups may provide the greatest protection in UK and US populations.