A cell in the kidney that could be key to understanding why diabetes leads to kidney failure has been identified by researchers.
Diabetes related kidney disease has previously been thought to be mainly due to the high levels of sugar in the blood damaging the small blood vessels in the kidney.
The study led by Richard Coward of the University of Bristol has found evidence that a cell in the kidney called the podocyte is important in the development of kidney failure in diabetes.
This is not due to the effects of high glucose on this cell but rather a lack of sensitivity to the hormone that is important in also controlling the blood sugar levels called insulin.
"The number of people diagnosed with diabetes is predicted to increase greatly in the future due to the global epidemic of type-2 diabetes," said Coward.
"Treatments that improve the sensitivity of this cell to insulin may be of great benefit in treating this major global healthcare problem," he added.
To find out whether insulin signalling in podocytes affects kidney function the researchers used mice that genetically had the insulin receptor removed from their podocytes, thereby making only this cell unresponsive to insulin in the body.
They found that the mice developed kidney disease with many similarities to that seen in diabetic patients, except that the mice all had normal blood sugar levels.
The findings were published in Cell Metabolism.