Prenatal exposure to ambient levels of flame retardant compounds - that inhibit or resist the spread of fire- affects neurodevelopment in young children, reveals a new study.
The polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are endocrine-disrupting chemicals and widely used flame-retardant compounds that are applied to a broad array of textiles and consumer products, including mattresses, upholstery, building materials, and electronic equipment.
Human exposure may occur through dietary ingestion or through inhalation of dust containing PBDEs.
The researchers found that children with higher concentrations of PBDEs in their umbilical cord blood at birth scored lower on tests of mental and physical development between the ages of one and six.
Moreover, developmental effects were particularly evident at four years of age, when verbal and full IQ scores were reduced 5.5 to 8.0 points for those with the highest prenatal exposures.
"These findings are of potential concern, because IQ is a predictor of future educational performance; and the observed reductions in IQ scores are in the range seen with low level lead exposure," said Frederica Perera, DrPh, professor of Environmental Health Sciences at the Mailman School, CCCEH Director, and coauthor added.
"This research underscores the need for preventive policies to reduce toxic exposures occurring in utero," Perera added.
The study appears online in Environmental Health Perspectives.