Citing the results of the latest national census, China confirmed that its population increased by 73.9 million over the past decade to 1.339 billion in 2010.
The increase since the previous full nationwide 10-yearly census in 2000 was more than the population of Thailand -- and greater than the populations of Taiwan and South Korea put together.
The 2010 figure was released by the National Bureau of Statistics, which unveiled the census results at a briefing in Beijing.
China's population in 2000 was 1.265 billion.
China has previously said its so-called "one-child" population control policy -- which generally limits people to one offspring, with exceptions for certain groups -- has averted 400 million births since its imposition in 1980.
China had a population of 594 million, less than half the current figure, in its first census in 1953.