A sophisticated MRI scanning technique that seeks to measure brain blood flow could help physicians identify different types of dementia and also monitor effectiveness of treatments, New Zealand scientists say.
A powerful MRI scanner used by researchers from the University of Otago, Christchurch seeks to measure how the brain works in relation to eye movements. Van der Veer Institute is the first in the country a new brain scanning technique (arterial spin labelling) which measures the extent of blood flow into different areas of the brain. The MRI scanner magnetically 'tags' the blood as it flows up through the neck. Alternatives require the use of radioactive chemicals and a PET scanner, which is expensive and only available overseas.
The blood flow measures can be correlated with other tasks (e.g. eye movements) that arise from the study. In the study so far, the researchers have found some areas of the brain, such as the parietal lobe, have reduced blood flow because of Alzheimer's, a finding that corresponds with some of the well-known effects of the disease and with overseas research.
This technique has only been licensed by General Electric in 14 centres world-wide and Christchurch is the first in New Zealand.
The research is also investigating which areas of the brain are activated with fast eye movements. People with Alzheimer's have different eye movements to those who do not have the disease.
"This new approach to safely measure brain blood flow through MRI may enable physicians and scientists to distinguish between different kinds of dementia." said Dr Michael MacAskill, Chief Scientist at the Van der Veer Institute.
"This could then be useful in diagnosis, predicting the progress of the disease, and monitoring the effectiveness of treatments."