A new detection method that uses gold nanoparticles to diagnose flu in minutes has been developed by scientists at the University of Georgia.
By coating gold nanoparticles with antibodies that bind to specific strains of the flu virus and then measuring how the particles scatter laser light, the technology can detect influenza in minutes at a cost of only a fraction of a penny per exam.
"We've known for a long time that you can use antibodies to capture viruses and that nanoparticles have different traits based on their size," said study co-author Ralph Tripp, Georgia Research Alliance Eminent Scholar in Vaccine Development in the UGA College of Veterinary Medicine. "What we've done is combine the two to create a diagnostic test that is rapid and highly sensitive."
Co-author Jeremy Driskell explained that gold nanoparticles, which are roughly a tenth of the width of a human hair, are extremely efficient at scattering light. Biological molecules such as viruses, on the other hand, are intrinsically weak light scatterers. The clustering of the virus with the gold nanoparticles causes the scattered light to fluctuate in a predictable and measurable pattern.
"The test is something that can be done literally at the point-of-care," said Driskell, who worked on the technology as an assistant research scientist in Tripp's lab. "You take your sample, put it in the instrument, hit a button and get your results."
Gold is often thought of as a costly metal, but the new diagnostic test uses such a small amount-less than what would fit on the head of the pin-that the cost is one-hundredth of a cent per test.
The study has been published in the journal Analyst.