Those who need the most help, but actually are the least helped are African-American men among the disadvantaged groups in the United States, claims a new book on the subject.
The new book from the University of Chicago's School of Social Service Administration says black men suffer in a variety of ways, including being stereotyped as reckless and having little regard for their children.
They are also disadvantaged because changes in the economy have depleted the number of well-paying, manual labour jobs, said Waldo E. Johnson Jr., Associate Professor at SSA, who is the editor of Social Work With African American Males: Health, Mental Health and Social Policy, recently published by Oxford University Press.
"Contemporary characterizations and depictions suggest that African-American males harbour a lifelong disregard for their own personal development, and a lack of commitment to their loved ones and society in general, a societal attitude that keeps them from being helped," he said.
Most African-American men do not fit the popular stereotype and fulfil their responsibilities to their families and society, but the stereotype persists, fuelled in some ways by media images.
But the problems they face are real, and social workers should feel challenged to put the tools and resources of their profession at work to help black men in need, he said.
The book is a collection of studies, which details the disadvantages that black men face, and suggests ways they can be helped.
Despite their problems, few programs are designed specifically to help black males, and social workers may not view them as part the families and communities that the workers serve, with the result that black males' individual needs go un-addressed.
"It is critical to utilize both social work research and practice to articulate these and other challenges that adversely impact the physical, mental, and social health and well-being of African American males," Johnson said.
In his book, Johnson proposes that effective programs need to be replicated, such as well-run after-school programs that promote educational achievement and provide sports and other outlets for boys.
Social service providers need to open up programs for fathers as well.
There are also some public policy steps we can take, said Johnson, who calls them the "Plan for Success."
They include establishing an independent education and wellness plan for every African-American male born in this country, providing a school-to-work link that enhances opportunities for African-American men to work and finally, giving African-American men access to public housing.
"Many communities discourage single men from living in public housing, which signals negative value and worth as individuals and members of families who need places to live," Johnson added.
The plan can help men move forward and become fully participating members of society.