Plastic bottles, cans and other products have extremely harmful effects on humans and laboratory animals, according to six environmental research studies.
In a critical new research on environmental contaminants and adverse reproductive and behavioural effects, it was found that exposure to Bisphenol A (BPA), phthalates and flame retardants (PBDEs) could lead to many adverse health effects.
Plastic products contain "endocrine disrupting chemicals" that can block the production of the male sex hormone testosterone (phthalates used in PVC plastic), mimic the action of the sex hormone estrogen (bisphenol A or BPA used in polycarbonate plastic), and interfere with thyroid hormone (brominated flame retardants or PBDEs used in many types of plastic).
In two articles, scientists have reported very similar changes in male reproductive organs in rats and humans related to foetal exposure to phthalates. Two articles show that foetal exposure to BPA or PBDEs disrupts normal development of the brain and behaviour in rats and mice. Two other articles provide data that these chemicals are massively contaminating the oceans and causing harm to aquatic wildlife.
And in other studies, new laboratory research has been integrated with a broader view reflecting exposures to a variety of chemicals in plastic. These omnipresent chemicals found in many plastics act independently and together to adversely affect human, animal and environmental health.
The studies also show highlighted the massive contamination of the Pacific Ocean with plastic, and that the amount of contamination has increased dramatically in recent years; animal brain structure, brain chemistry and behavioural effects from exposure to BPA and "phthalate syndrome" in rats' male offspring.
"For the first time a series of articles will appear together that identify that billions of kilograms of a number of chemicals used in the manufacture of different types of plastic can leach out of plastic products and cause harm to the brain and reproductive system when exposure occurs during fetal life or prior to weaning," emphasized Dr. Frederick vom Saal, Guest Editor of the "Plastic World".
"Not only are these studies of scientific importance, they also contribute to the ongoing US congressional hearings involving the Food and Drug Administration. As such, "The Plastic World" has a broader societal impact and raises awareness of increasingly important environmental issues," remarked Gert-Jan Geraeds, Publisher of Environmental Research.
The studies have been published in a special section in the October 2008 issue of Environmental Research, "A Plastic World."