The word 'Surgery' is derived from the Greek term 'cheirourgen', where 'cheir' means hand and 'ergo' means work. Therefore, surgery stands for 'to work with hand.'
Sushrutha, an Indian physician who first documented
surgical procedures in the 6th century BC, is considered to be the 'Father of Surgery.' He is also named as the 'Father of Plastic Surgery and Cosmetic Surgery' since his technique rhinoplasty, reconstruction of nose, remains the same till date.
The second most common procedure is from the specialty of obstetrics and gynecology with cesarean section (1.3 million) and hysterectomy( 498,000). The third most common procedure is from the specialty of orthopedics - reduction of fracture (671,000), total knee replacements (719,000) and total hip replacements (332,000).
The majority of surgeries conducted on the eye, ear, nose, mouth, pharynx and skin are performed in an outpatient setting, while the majority of obstetrical, respiratory and cardiovascular surgeries are performed in an inpatient setting.
The most common ambulatory surgeries include lens and cataract procedure (99.9% preformed in ambulatory settings (AS), Cholecystectomy - surgical removal of gallbladder (55.1%), lumpectomy - removal of breast tumor or lump and a small portion of the surrounding normal tissue (96.5%), hernia repair (90.2%), pacemakers (64%), skin graft (67%), Hysterectomy - removal of uterus (39.8%).
Women (86%) outgrew men (13%) in both surgical and nonsurgical procedures worldwide. The top procedures performed on women include breast augmentation, liposuction, eyelid surgery, fat grafting, and abdominoplasty while on men it was Eyelid Surgery, Rhinoplasty, Liposuction, Gynecomastia, fat grafting and ear surgery.
Middle-expenditure ($401–1000) and high-expenditure (>$1000) countries which account for 30·2% of the world's population, provided 73·6% (172·3 million) of surgeries worldwide in 2004, whereas poor-expenditure (≤$100) countries account for 34·8% of the global population yet undertook only 3·5% (8·1 million) of all surgical procedures in 2004.
Postsurgical complications may either be general or specific to the type of surgery. Common postoperative complications include fever, wound infection, embolism, incomplete lung inflation.
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