Human reproductive system consists of different female and male internal and external organs of the body. The reproductive system is meant for giving birth; the male and female reproductive organs together originate a new life. Anatomy of female reproductive system comprises of ovaries, fallopian tubes, uterus, cervix and vagina and male reproductive organs are penis, testes and scrotum. Working of male and female reproductive systems is largely controlled by sex hormones secreted by ovaries, testicles, prostate gland and pituitary glands.
What are the Causes of Reproductive Health Disorders?
Most reproductive disorders are a result of abnormal hormone production by endocrine glands such as pituitary, thyroid
, adrenals and by ovaries and testes. Other factors such as genetic disorders, congenital anomalies, tumors and infections can also cause reproductive problems.
Male reproductive organs
may have congenital anomalies of prostate gland and seminal vesicles hampering their functions. Abnormal penis size and underdeveloped genitals can also be due to genetic mutations. Female genetic disorders include anomalies of the vagina and uterus affecting their structure, presence and function. Sexually transmitted diseases
are caused due to bacterial or viral infections transmitted by sexual contact with an infected partner. Syphilis
, AIDS, genital herpes
are some STDs which can largely affect genital organs externally and internally.
Functional disorders of reproductive organs are mainly because of dysfunctional endocrine glands secreting abnormal amount of hormones. This causes hormonal imbalance in the body resulting in improper functioning of organs like ovaries, testicles, prostate gland etc. It may also result in abnormal menstrual cycle
in females and low sperm count in males
Interesting Facts about Human Reproductive System
- Human reproductive system produces the smallest as well as the largest cell of human body. The sperm being the smallest human cell, 3 by 5 micrometer in size, and ovum released by female ovaries is the largest cell in human body which is approx 120 micrometer in diameter.
- A female uterus is about 3 inches long and 2 inches wide normally while during pregnancy the uterus can expand up to 20 times of its normal size. Uterus contains one of the strongest muscles of female body.
- A normal male ejaculates approx 2-4 ml of semen at a time. Healthy male testes produce approximately 500 million sperm cells daily which can release up to 75 million or more sperm cells during an ejaculation and it takes only a single sperm to fertilize an egg.
- Female ovaries contain about 1-2 million eggs at birth but only 300 thousand reach puberty and only 300-400 cells get released in a lifetime.
- Vagina hosts many guarding bacteria which protect the female reproductive organs from external infections. These bacteria reside in slightly acidic environment lowering the pH of vagina.
- At 8 weeks of pregnancy vital organs like brain, heart, skin and stomach are all developed with the embryo measuring only an adult’s thumb. Health of the fetus and its development is affected by mother’s oral health.
- An ova has a life span of 12-24 hours after it is released from ovary. While a sperm has a lifespan of 36 hours.
- Zygote is a single cell entity formed by fusion of sperm with the female egg. All of us have been just a single cell once in our life.
- Androgens are the hormones that are responsible of ‘manly’ male characteristics like deep voice, body hair, height and muscle mass.
- Sperm production requires an optimal temperature 20 less than human body. That is why scrotum, which contains testicles, is present outside body.
- Alcoholism, smoking and drug abuse greatly reduce your sexual function. While exercise and healthy diet can improve it.
- Fallopian tubes are about 12 centimeters long and only wide as a sewing needle.
- A human female can give birth to about 35 babies in a lifetime.
- Fertilization is most possible when the female is at the middle of her menstrual cycle. It is when the hormones promoting pregnancy are at their peak.
- When in womb the body of baby is covered by thin layer of hairs that disappear when the baby is born.