Infectious Diseases Recognized in India

Email Print This Page bookmark
Font : A-A+

India’s distinctive demographic profile and geographic position presents a unique challenge to infectious disease management. The country is one of the world’s most populated nations, with a substantial proportion of the population living in impoverished areas where infectious diseases can spread exponentially.

Geographically, the country lies within the distribution zone of important disease vectors such as the Aedes aegypti mosquito (which spreads dengue and Zika virus ), and the country is subject to annual monsoon seasons which perpetuate mosquito borne diseases such as Dengue, Japanese Encephalitis and Chikungunya

Newly Discovered Microbes and Diseases of Public Health Importance
Year Agent Disease
1975 Parvovirus B-19 Fifth disease
1976 Cryptosporidium parvum Cryptosporidiosis
1977 Ebola virus Ebola haemorrhagic fever
1977 Legionella pneumophila Legionnaire’s disease
1977 Hantaan virus Korean haemorrhagic fever
1977 Campylobacter jejuni Gastroenteritis (food poisoning)
1980 Human T-lymphotropic virus I (HTLV-I) T-cell leukemia/lymohoma
1981 Toxin producing strains of Staphylococcus aureus(golden staph) Various infections
1982 Escherichia coli O157:H7 Food poisoning
1982 HTLV-II Lymphoma
1982 Borrelia burgdorferi Lyme disease
1983 Human immunodeficiency virus AIDS
1983 Helicobacter pylori Duodenal and gastric ulcer and stomach cancer
1985 Enterocytozoon bieneusi Microsporidiosis diarrhoea
1986 Cyclospora cayatanensis Diarrhoea
1988 Hepatitis E virus Hepatitis
1989 Ehrilichia chafeensis Human monocytic Ehrilichiosis
1989 Hepatitis C virus Liver cancer (hepatocellular carcinoma)
1991 Guanarito virus Venezuelan haemorrhagic fever
1991 Encephalitozoon hellem - - -
1991 New species of Babesia Babesiosis haemolytic disease
1992 Vibrio cholerae O139 Cholera
1992 Bartonella henselae Bacteremia, endocarditis, bacillary angiomatosis and peliosis hepatis
1993 Sin nombre virus Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS), aka Four corners virus or Navajo flu
1993 Encephalitozoon cunculi  - - -
1994 Sabia virus Brazilian haemorrhagic fever
1995 Human herpes virus 8(HHV-8) Kaposi’s sarcoma
1999 Nipah virus Nipah virus (NiV) encephalitis
2002 SARS coronavirusa Severe acute respiratory syndrome
2003 Influenza A (H5N1)a Avian Influenza
2009 Influenza A( H1N1) Swine Flu
2012 Novel coronavirus Severe respiratory infection


Dengue: Dengue virus belongs to the family of Flaviviridae, having four serotypes that spread by the bite of infected Aedes mosquitoes.
In India, the first epidemic of clinical dengue-like illness was recorded in Madras (now Chennai) in 1780 and the first virologically proven epidemic of dengue fever (DF) occurred in Calcutta (now Kolkata) and Eastern Coast of India in 1963-1964.

Dengue Cases and Deaths in India between 2010 and 2017:
Sl. No. Affected States/UTs 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016* 2017*
C D C D C D C D C D C D C D C D
1 Andhra Pradesh 776 3 1209 6 2299 2 910 1 1262 5 3159 2 3417 2 1080 0
2 Arunachal Pradesh 0 0 0 0 346 0 0 0 27 0 1933 1 13 0 3 0
3 Assam 237 2 0 0 1058 5 4526 2 85 0 1076 1 6157 4 331 0
4 Bihar 510 0 21 0 872 3 1246 5 297 0 1771 0 1912 0 18 0
5 Chattisgarh 4 0 313 11 45 0 83 2 440 9 384 1 356 0 38 0
6 Goa 242 0 26 0 39 0 198 2 168 1 293 0 150 0 150 0
7 Gujarat 2568 1 1693 9 3067 6 6272 15 2320 3 5590 9 8028 14 883 0
8 Haryana 866 20 267 3 768 2 1784 5 214 2 9921 13 2493 0 4 1
9 Himachal Pradesh 3 0 0 0 73 0 89 2 2 0 19 1 322 0 5 0
10 J & K 0 0 3 0 17 1 1837 3 1 0 153 0 79 1 1 0
11 Jharkhand 27 0 36 0 42 0 161 0 36 0 102 0 414 1 187 0
12 Karnataka 2285 7 405 5 3924 21 6408 12 3358 2 5077 9 6083 8 5728 5
13 Kerala 2597 17 1304 10 4172 15 7938 29 2575 11 4075 25 7439 13 16530 28
14 Madhya Pradesh 175 1 50 0 239 6 1255 9 2131 13 2108 8 3150 12 52 0
15 Meghalaya 1 0 0 0 27 2 43 0 0 0 13 0 172 0 6 0
16 Maharashtra 1489 5 1138 25 2931 59 5610 48 8573 54 4936 23 6792 33 718 3
17 Manipur 7 0 220 0 6 0 9 0 0 0 52 0 51 1 36 0
18 Mizoram 0 0 0 0 6 0 7 0 19 0 43 0 580 0 36 0
19 Nagaland 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 21 1 142 0 0 0
20 Orissa 29 5 1816 33 2255 6 7132 6 6433 9 2450 2 8380 11 455 2
21 Punjab 4012 15 3921 33 770 9 4117 25 472 8 14128 18 10439 15 153 0
22 Rajasthan 1823 9 1072 4 1295 10 4413 10 1243 7 4043 7 5292 16 167 0
23 Sikkim 0 0 2 0 2 0 38 0 5 0 21 0 82 0 20 0
24 Tamil Nadu 2051 8 2501 9 12826 66 6122 0 2804 3 4535 12 2531 5 6919 1
25 Tripura 0 0 0 0 9 0 8 0 6 0 40 0 102 0 62 0
26 Telangana 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 704 1 1831 2 4037 4 422 0
27 Uttar Pradesh 960 8 155 5 342 4 1414 5 200 0 2892 9 15033 42 302 17
28 Uttrakhand 178 0 454 5 110 2 54 0 106 0 1655 1 2146 4 0 0
29 West Bengal 805 1 510 0 6456 11 5920 6 3934 4 8516 14 22865 45 571 0
30 A& N Island 25 0 6 0 24 0 67 0 139 0 153 0 92 0 9 0
31 Chandigarh 221 0 73 0 351 2 107 0 13 0 966 1 1246 0 53 0
32 Delhi 6259 8 1131 8 2093 4 5574 6 995 3 15867 60 4431 10 657 1
33 D&N Haveli 46 0 68 0 156 1 190 0 641 1 1154 0 4161 2 443 0
34 Daman & Diu 0 0 0 0 96 0 61 0 46 0 165 0 89 0 14 0
35 Puduchery 96 0 463 3 3506 5 2215 0 1322 1 771 0 490 2 582 0
Total 28292 110 18860 169 50222 242 75808 193 40571 137 99913 220 129166 245 36635 58


Zika Virus:
On 15 May 2017, the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare-Government of India (MoHFW) reported three laboratory-confirmed cases of Zika virus disease in Bapunagar area, Ahmedabad District, Gujarat, State, India.

Zika virus disease is caused by a virus transmitted primarily by Aedes mosquitoes.

World Health Organization has declared Zika virus disease to be a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC) on 1st February, 2016.

References:
  1. Indian Council of Medical Research
  2. Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Gov’t of India
  3. Dengue Cases and Deaths in the Country since 2010

Medindia Newsletters

Subscribe to our Free Newsletters!

Terms & Conditions and Privacy Policy.

Find a Doctor