ROCHESTER, Minn., July 14 Here are highlights from the July issue of Mayo Clinic Health Letter. You may cite this publication as often as you wish. Reprinting is allowed for a fee. Mayo Clinic Health Letter attribution is required. Include the following subscription information as your editorial policies permit: Visit www.HealthLetter.MayoClinic.com or call toll-free for subscription information, 1-800-333-9037, extension 9PR1.
Test Your Knowledge of Bone Health
ROCHESTER, Minn. -- Knowing key facts about bone health can help reduce the risk of osteoporosis, a disease that causes bones to become weak, brittle and prone to fracture. Bone loss that leads to osteoporosis often can be slowed by:
-- Getting adequate calcium and vitamin D
-- Doing weight-bearing exercise and strength training
-- Limiting alcohol consumption
-- Stopping smoking
The July issue of Mayo Clinic Health Letter includes this short true-or-false quiz on bone health:
Being overweight reduces the risk of osteoporosis.
True: Weight has a powerful impact on bone mass. Because weight increases the load on your skeleton, bones compensate by growing stronger to support the weight. But the benefit isn't an excuse to gain weight or not to lose weight, for those who are overweight. Instead, thinner or smaller adults -- who have weighed less than 127 pounds for much of their lives -- tend to have lower bone density and may want to emphasize weight-bearing exercise such as walking or jogging to increase their skeletal load.
Taking testosterone isn't effective at warding off osteoporosis in older men.
False: Men with very low testosterone levels are at increased risk of osteoporosis and can perhaps improve their bone density with testosterone replacement. This therapy also may help men with low testosterone strengthen muscles and reduce the risk of falling.
Taking a prescription osteoporosis drug does not substitute for adequate calcium intake.
True: No osteoporosis drug will help bolster weak bones if calcium intake is inadequate. Vitamin D also is needed to help the body absorb calcium. For postmenopausal women and men over 65 who have osteoporosis, taking a total 1,500 milligrams (mg) of calcium a day is reasonable -- in increments of no more than 500 mg at a time.
Ordinary and Not-So-Ordinary Causes of Swelling
ROCHESTER, Minn. -- Puffy feet and swollen legs usually aren't reason for alarm. But the key word is "usually."
The reasons for edema (swelling) often are ordinary -- hot weather, sitting or standing for a long time or eating too much salty food. If the swelling isn't accompanied by other signs and symptoms and goes away within about 24 hours, a visit to the doctor probably isn't needed.
Longer-lasting or recurring edema, even if fairly slight, typically warrants a doctor's appointment, according to the July issue of Mayo Clinic Heath Letter. Some causes of edema are serious, such as heart failure, kidney disease, liver damage or blood clots. Edema can be a side effect of commonly used drugs such as certain blood pressure medications, hormones, medications that open blood vessels and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Some herbal supplements also can contribute to edema.
A doctor will try to identify the possible causes of edema. The underlying conditions and the edema can be treated. Chronic edema can cause pain and discomfort, itchy rashes, and reddish-brown skin discoloration. Treatment options include:
Sodium restriction -- Reducing salt consumption helps decrease retention of body fluids.
Diuretic drugs -- These medications increase the kidney's output of water and so