Historical cost accounting for real estate assets implicitly assumes that the value of real estate assets diminishes predictably over time. However, since real estate values have historically risen or fallen with market conditions, many industry investors deem presentations of operating results for real estate companies that use historical cost accounting to be insufficient by themselves. For that reason, the Company considers funds from operations ("FFO"), normalized FFO and adjusted funds from operations ("AFFO") to be appropriate measures of operating performance of an equity real estate investment trust ("REIT"). In particular, the Company believes that normalized FFO and AFFO are useful because they allow investors, analysts and Company management to compare the Company's operating performance to the operating performance of other real estate companies and between periods on a consistent basis without having to account for differences caused by unanticipated items and other events.
The Company uses the National Association of Real Estate Investment Trusts, Inc. ("NAREIT") definition of FFO. FFO and FFO per share are operating performance measures adopted by NAREIT. NAREIT defines FFO as the most commonly accepted and reported measure of a REIT's operating performance equal to "net income (computed in accordance with GAAP), excluding gains (or losses) from sales of property, plus depreciation and amortization, and after adjustments for unconsolidated partnerships and joint ventures." The Company has included normalized FFO which it has defined as FFO excluding certain expenses related to closing costs of properties acquired accounted for as business combinations and mortgages funded and has included AFFO which it has defined as normalized FFO excluding straight-line rent and deferred compensation and may include other non-cash items from time to time. Normalized FFO and AFFO presented herein may not be comparable to similar measures presented by other real estate companies due to the fact that not all real estate companies use the same definitions.
FFO, normalized FFO and AFFO should not be considered as alternatives to net income (determined in accordance with GAAP) as indicators of the Company's financial performance or as alternatives to cash flow from operating activities (determined in accordance with GAAP) as measures of the Company's liquidity, nor are they necessarily indicative of sufficient cash flow to fund all of the Company's needs. The Company believes that in order to facilitate a clear understanding of the consolidated historical operating results of the Company, FFO, normalized FFO and AFFO should be examined in conjunction with net income as presented elsewhere herein.
Upon the adoption of Accounting Standards Update ("ASU") No, 2017-01, Business Combinations (Topic 805): Clarifying the Definition of a Business, on January 1, 2017, the Company expects that substantially all of its acquisitions will be accounted for as asset acquisitions. As such, transaction costs related to its acquisitions will be capitalized into the real estate property. The transaction costs of $11,000 above for the three months ended September 30, 2017 relate to costs associated with the $5.0 million mezzanine loan.
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