Trade Names/Brand Names :
- Cystran, Noctorin, Oxybutin, Oxyspas, Tropan. International
- Ditropan, Ditropan XL, Oxytrol.
Why it is prescribed :
Oxybutynin belongs to group of drugs known as antispasmodics and anticholinergics. It is prescribed for the treatment of overactive bladder which results in urinary incontinence and frequent urination. It works by relaxing the bladder muscles and thereby stops the sudden contractions of the muscles to prevent urinary urgency.
When it is not to be taken (Contraindications):
Oxybutynin is contraindicated in patients who are allergic to the drug, with glaucoma (increased ocular pressure), myasthenia gravis (condition which makes the muscle weak), porphyria (a metabolic disorder) and urinary retention. It should be avoided in patients with structural or functional gastrointestinal obstruction, since it reduces the movements of the digestive tract.
Category B :
Animal studies have failed to demonstrate a risk to the fetus and appropriate studies on pregnant women are lacking.
Dosage & When it is to be taken (Indications):
The recommended dose for adults when taken orally is 2.5 mg twice a day.Maximum dose of 5mg can be taken 3-4 times a day if needed.Single transdermal patch delivering 3.9 mg/day can be applied onto the abdomen, hip or buttock twice weekly.
How it should be taken :
It comes as a tablet to be taken by mouth. The transdermal patch should be applied onto the skin as per the instructions given in the leaflet.
Warnings and Precautions :
Discontinue the drug immediately if there is any angioedema (swelling) in the face, tongue, larynx and pharynx as it could indicate an allergic reaction and result in breathing difficulty.
Oxybutynin hydrochloride is not recommended for children below five years.
Oxybutynin tablets should not be administered to patients with lactose intolerance, as the tablet contains lactose.
Caution should be exercised in patients with history of heart disease, high blood pressure, nerve-related disorders, liver or kidney disease, myasthenia gravis, enlarged prostate, overactive thyroid, structural or functional gastrointestinal problem including gastroesophageal reflux,any allergy, who are taking other medications, during pregnancy and breastfeeding.
Avoid driving a car or operating machinery while taking this medication as it may cause drowsiness, dizziness or blurred vision.
Consult a doctor if you are going to take the medicine in hot and high temperature weather conditions, since it reduces sweating.
Side Effects :
: Headache, weakness and body pain.
: Dry mouth, constipation, nausea, indigestion, loss of appetite, difficulty in swallowing, stomach pain, chest discomfort, and thirst.
Central Nervous System
: Drowsiness, dizziness, confusion, difficulty in concentration and headache.
: Runny nose.
Eye and ENT
: Blurred vision, dry eyes and glaucoma (increased eye pressure).
: Dry skin, decreased sweating, allergic reactions and phototoxicity.
: Urinary tract infection, erectile dysfunction
Other Precautions :
Avoid alcohol consumption to avoid drowsiness.
Do not breastfeed while taking oxybutynin as small amount of the drug is secreted through mothers milk.
Consult a doctor immediately if any side effects occur while using the drug.
Regular dental checkups are necessary during long term treatment to avoid dental caries caused due to dryness of mouth.
Drug Interactions :
Oxybutynin should be avoided with:
Other anticholinergic agents like atropine and its compounds, with drugs used in the treatment of psychosis like chlorpromazine, haloperidol and clozapine, drugs used in the treatment of heart disease like digoxin, antiparkinsonian drugs like biperiden and amantadine, drugs used in the treatment of depression like amitriptyline due to the additional anticholinergic effect of the drugs.
Gastrointestinal drugs like metoclopramide and domperidone since they have opposite effect on gastrointestinal tract motility. Metoclopramide and domperidone increase motility, while oxybutynin decreases motility.
Concurrent administration of azole antifungals like ketoconazole and antibiotics like erythromycin as these drugs being CYP3A4 inhibitors may inhibit the metabolism of oxybutynin.
Cholinesterase inhibitors like physostigmine, neostigimine due to decreased efficacy of these drugs.
Storage Conditions :
Store the drug at room temperature and protect from heat, light and moisture. Keep out of reach of children.