Why it is prescribed :
This medication is an anticonvulsant, prescribed for bipolar disorder, epilepsy and to prevent migraine headache. It controls the abnormal activity of nerve impulses in the brain and central nervous system.
When it is not to be taken (Contraindications):
Contraindicated in patients with known hypersensitivity and urea cycle disorder.
Category D :
There is an evidence of fetal risk based on adverse reaction data, but potential benefits may allow the drug to be used in pregnant women despite risks.
Dosage & When it is to be taken (Indications):
Adult: PO- Partial seizures; Primary generalized seizures- Initial-10-15 mg/kg/day in 2-4 divided doses. Max: 60 mg/kg/day.
Acute manic episodes of bipolar disorder- Initial- 25 mg/kg once daily. Max: 60 mg/kg/day.
Migraine prophylaxis- 500 mg once daily for 1 wk, up to 1,000 mg once daily.
How it should be taken :
It comes as a tablet to take by mouth, with food.
Warnings and Precautions :
Caution should be exercised in patients with history of brain, liver, kidney problems, metabolic disease, blood disease, decrease in albumin, HIV infection, elderly, children, during pregnancy and breastfeeding.
It may cause dizziness, drowsiness, or blurred vision, do not drive a car or operate machinery and get up slowly from bed while taking this medication.
Avoid alcohol consumption.
Patient may develop with an increased risk of pancreatic inflammation and suicidal thoughts, if it so consult with your doctor.
Side Effects :
Nausea, vomiting, drowsiness, dizziness, weakness, abdominal pain, indigestion and rash.
Body as a Whole
Chest pain, chills, fever, neck pain and neck rigidity.
High/low blood pressure, fast heart rate and dilation of blood vessels.
Loss of appetite, fecal incontinence, flatulence, inflammation of gastrointestinal tract/tongue and mouth infection.
Swelling in the extremities and weight gain.
Joint pain, leg cramps and twitching.
Central Nervous System
Abnormal dreams, abnormal gait, agitation, in-coordination, muscle rigidity, memory loss, sleeplessness, tingling, involuntary movements, abnormal thinking and fainting.
Difficulty in breathing and inflammation of nose.
Hair loss, skin scar, dry skin, boils, rash, itching and dandruff.
Eye and ENT
Lazy eye, inflammation of eyes, dry eyes, double vision, deafness, ear/eye pain and ringing in the ear.
Painful menstrual period/urination, urinary incontinence and vaginal inflammation.
Other Precautions :
It may lead to poor blood clots.
Monitor blood counts, liver and kidney functions regularly while taking this medication.
Storage Conditions :
Oral: Store it at controlled room temperature (15-30°C).